Geospatial and techno-economic analysis of wind and solar resources in India
Using geospatial and economic analysis, we identify abundant renewable resources in India: 850-3,400 GW for onshore wind, 1,300-5,200 GW for utility-scale solar photovoltaic (PV), 160-620 GW for concentrated solar power (CSP, with 6h-storage). However, these resources are concentrated in the western and southern regions. Deriving capital costs from India's 2017-18 auction prices, we estimate the 5th and 95th percentiles of levelized costs of energy generation ranging from USD 47-52 per MWh for solar PV and USD 42-62 per MWh for wind. Karnataka, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, and Telangana are the best states for access to high-voltage substations, but transmission investments in Gujarat, Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh, and Madhya Pradesh are needed to harness signicant renewable resources. More than 80% of wind resources lie on agricultural lands where dual land use strategies could encourage wind development and avoid loss of agriculturally productive land. Approximately 90% of CSP resources and 80% of solar PV resources are in areas experiencing high water stress, which can severely restrict deployment unless water requirements are minimized. Finally, we find co-location potential of at least 110 GW of wind and 360 GW of solar PV, which together could meet 35% of electricity demand in 2030.