Extreme fast charging of commercial Li-ion batteries via combined thermal switching and self-heating approaches
The mass adoption of electric vehicles is hindered by the inadequate extreme fast charging (XFC) performance (i.e., less than 15 min charging time to reach 80% state of charge) of commercial high-specific-energy (i.e., >200 Wh/kg) lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Here, to enable the XFC of commercial LIBs, we propose the regulation of the battery’s self-generated heat via active thermal switching. We demonstrate that retaining the heat during XFC with the switch OFF boosts the cell’s kinetics while dissipating the heat after XFC with the switch ON reduces detrimental reactions in the battery. Without modifying cell materials or structures, the proposed XFC approach enables reliable battery operation by applying <15 min of charge and 1 h of discharge. These results are almost identical regarding operativity for the same battery type tested applying a 1 h of charge and 1 h of discharge, thus, meeting the XFC targets set by the United States Department of Energy. Finally, we also demonstrate the feasibility of integrating the XFC approach in a commercial battery thermal management system.