Critical Review of the Novel Applications and Uses of Nanofluids
Nanofluids — one simple product of the emerging world nanotechnology — where nanoparticles (nominally 1–100 nm in size) are mixed with conventional base fluids (water, oils, glycols, etc.). Nanofluids have seen enormous growth in popularity since they were proposed by Choi in 1995 . In the year 2010 alone there were nearly 500 research articles where the term nanofluid was used in the title, showing rapid growth from 2000 (12) and 2005 (78). Much of the first decade of nanofluid research was focused on measuring and modeling fundamental thermophysical properties of nanofluids (thermal conductivity, density, viscosity, convection coefficients). Recent research, however, has started to highlight how nanofluids might perform in a wide variety of other applications. These applications range from their use in nanomedicine  to their use as solar energy harvesting media . By analyzing the available body of research to date, this article presents trends of where nanofluid research is headed and suggests which applications may benefit the most from employing nanofluids. Overall, this review summarizes the novel applications and uses of nanofluids while setting the stage for future nanofluid use in industry.