Three-Dimensionally Aligned Sulfur Electrodes by Directional Freeze Tape Casting
Rational design of sulfur electrodes is exceptionally important in enabling a high-performance lithium/sulfur cell. Constructing a continuous pore structure of the sulfur electrode that enables facile lithium ion transport into the electrode and mitigates the reconstruction of sulfur is a key factor for enhancing the electrochemical performance. Here, we report a three-dimensionally (3D) aligned sulfur electrode cast onto conventional aluminum foil by directional freeze tape casting. The 3D aligned sulfur–graphene oxide (S–GO) electrode consisting of few micron thick S–GO layers with 10–20 μm interlayer spacings demonstrates significant improvement in the performance of the Li/S cell. Moreover, the freeze tape cast graphene oxide electrode exhibits homogeneous reconfiguration behavior in the polysulfide catholyte cell tests and demonstrated extended cycling capability with only 4% decay of the specific capacity over 200 cycles. This work emphasizes the critical importance of proper structural design for sulfur–carbonaceous composite electrodes.