Structural Degradation of Layered Cathode Materials in Lithium-Ion Batteries Induced by Ball Milling
Layered LiNi0.4Mn0.4Co0.18Ti0.02O2 cathode powders were ball-milled for various lengths of time. The structural properties of the pristine and milled powders, which have different particle sizes were examined with X-ray diffraction, soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy to determine the effect of milling on structure. Electrochemical testing in half-cells was also carried out and shows that milling plays an important role in the performance of these cathode materials; as milling time increases, there is a decrease in initial discharge capacity. The first cycle irreversible capacity also increases for milled samples, as does capacity loss upon cycling under some regimes.The electrochemical degradation is strongly correlated with damage to the lamellar structure of cathode particles induced by milling, and lithium carbonate formation.