Origin of chemical shift of manganese in lithium battery electrode materials—a comparison of hard and soft X-ray techniques

Origin of chemical shift of manganese in lithium battery electrode materials—a comparison of hard and soft X-ray techniques

TitleOrigin of chemical shift of manganese in lithium battery electrode materials—a comparison of hard and soft X-ray techniques
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2002
AuthorsArtur Braun, Hongxin Wang, Uwe Bergmann, Michael C Tucker, Weiwei Gu, Stephen P Cramer, Elton J Cairns
JournalJournal of Power Sources
Volume112
231
Issue1
Pagination231-235
Date Published10/2002
KeywordsBattery electrodes, Hard X-ray, Manganese, reduction, Soft X-ray, surface
Abstract

L-edge X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy and Kβ emission spectroscopy were applied to monitor ex situ chemical valence changes of manganese in battery electrode materials as they appear during electrode processing and battery operation. We found that significant chemical shifts of the spectra occur already during electrode fabrication, prior to any electrochemical treatment. Employment of these two different techniques allows for the qualitative separation of contributions originating from the surface and from the bulk of the electrode particles.

DOI10.1016/S0378-7753(02)00367-1