Location-Dependent Cobalt Deposition in Smartphone Cells upon Long-Term Fast-Charging Visualized by Synchrotron X-ray Fluorescence
In this work, we investigate the transition-metal dissolution of the layered cathode material LiCoO2 upon repeated fast-charging of three smartphone batteries from different manufacturers using synchrotron micro X-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF). Using this spatially resolved technique, dissolution of Co and subsequent location-dependent deposition on the anode are observed. μ-XRF mapping of selected parts of the anode electrode sheets, such as electrode folds and edges of the jelly roll, reveals the difference in the way Co is deposited on specific regions of the anode electrode. While some folds show no depositions, edges of the anode show gradually accumulating Co depositions. Careful quantification of the dissolved Co reveals that the capacity loss scales with the amount of deposited Co on the anode, that is, total Co loss from within the cathode. Soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy of the Co depositions on the anode shows that Co is mainly deposited in a reduced 2+ state. While optimization of the fast-charging protocol mitigates Li plating on the anode, no significant difference in the amount of deposited Co can be observed between an optimized and a nonoptimized fast-charging algorithm.