Infrared surface modes in small NiO particles
Small particle specimens of NiO (powder and arc-produced smoke) were studied using infrared spectroscopy. Size distribution and particle configuration were established using an electron microscope. The importance of surface modes (polaritons) as well as their dependence on particle shape was established in the interpretation of the spectra. Chain formation in the smoke suggested cylinder calculations which showed the presence of both bulk and surface modes, in agreement with measurements. In both samples particle shape effects broaden the spectral features in the vicinity of the surface mode. Because of large errors in calculating surface modes from optical constants derived from a diatomic model, it was also shown that accurately measured optical constants are required in the study of the surface mode problem.