Electrical and Optical Properties of Electrochromic Devices Utilizing Polymer Electrodes

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We describe the preparation, electrical and optical analysis of prototype electrochromic electrodes and solid polymer electrolyes and complete switching devices. The electrodes studied are nickel oxide, nickel-manganese oxide, nickel-cobalt oxide, and tungsten-molybdenum oxide. These electrodes were found to be useful as active electrochromics or ion storage layers. Solid polymer electrolytes were synthesized from poly(ethylene oxide), a PEO, and poly(ethyleneimine). Also, an inorganic borate silicate glass was used as an ion conductors. The best performing devices were made with a-PEO electrolytes. Electrochromic devices were made using nickel oxide/tungsten-molybdenum, and nickel oxide/nickel manganese electrode combinations. Optical spectra as a function of voltage was obtained for each device. Our best nickel oxide/a-PEO/tungsten-molybdenum device showed the photopic transmittance (Tp) to be Tp(bleached)=0.79 and Tp(Colored)=0.39. The corresponding integrated solar transmittance was (Ts) to be Ts(bleached)=0.55, Ts(colored)=0.35. Our best nickel oxide/nickel-manganese device showed the photopic transmittance to be Tp(bleached)=0.71 and Tp(colored)=0.23. The corresponding integrated solar transmittance was Ts(bleached)=0.52, Ts(colored)=0.44. Better device properties are expected with improvements in the solid polymer electrolyte.

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