|Title||Comparison of MPC Formulations for Building Control under Commercial Time-of-Use Tariffs|
|Publication Type||Conference Paper|
|Year of Publication||2019|
|Authors||Olivier Van Cutsem, Maher Kayal, David Blum, Marco Pritoni|
|Conference Name||IEEE PowerTech Milan 2019|
|Keywords||commercial building, demand charge, Model predictive control (MPC), peak demand, time-of-use tarrif|
Most medium and large commercial buildings in the U.S. are subject to complex electricity tariffs that combine both Time-of-Use (TOU) energy and demand charges. This study analyses the performances of different economic Model Predictive Control (MPC) formulations, from the standpoints of monthly bill reduction, load shifting, and peak demand reduction. Simulations are performed on many simplified commercial building models, with multiple TOU demand charges, and under various summer conditions. Results show that compared to energy-only MPC, the traditional method for dealing with demand charges significantlyreduces peak demand and owner bill, however, highlight a lack of load shifting capability. A proposed incremental approachis presented, which better balances the bill components in the objective function. In the case study presented, this methodcan improve monthly bill savings and increase load shifting during demand response events, while keeping a similarly lowpeak demand, compared to traditional MPC methods taking into account demand charges.