High Efficiency Electrolytes for Beyond Lithium-ion Technologies
Li-ion batteries have expanded the electric vehicle market and large-scale grid storage, both of which require batteries with much higher energy densities. To meet this demand, alternative cathode and anode chemistries as well as electrolyte formulations are required. However, slight changes in the anode and cathode can put high strain on the electrolyte which will decompose at both high and low potentials to form a passivation layer. Herein, a series of electrolyte formulations will be presented that potentially support the use of high voltage cathodes as well as Li metal anode configurations. The use of Li bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide in high concentrations promotes the formation of a stable passivation layer at both high and low potentials. The results presented elucidate a thorough mechanistic understanding about how anions behave at electrode–electrolyte interfaces on both the anode and cathode.
Another approach to achieve higher energy densities is the implementation of Ni-rich layered cathode materials, such as LiNi0.8Mn0.1Co0.1O2 (NMC-811). Extracting large amounts of Li from the structure results in phase transformations and causes the material to become less thermally stable. Finally, beyond Li-ion chemistries have the potential to meet the demand of the EV market.
Postdoctoral Researcher, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
Dr. Judith Alvarado is currently working as a postdoctoral researcher in the Energy Storage and Distributed Resources Division at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, where she performs synthesis and advanced synchrotron characterization on layered oxide cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries and anode materials for sodium-ion batteries. Dr. Alvarado received her PhD from the University of California San Diego in Materials Science and Engineering. Previously, she completed a one-year Oakridge Associate Universities Journeymen Fellowship with the US Army Research Laboratory where she worked on non-aqueous electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries. Dr. Alvarado has developed expertise in high capacity anodes (Li metal and silicon), non-aqueous electrolytes, high energy cathodes for lithium-ion batteries, as well as surface coatings for sodium-ion battery cathodes.