|Title||Sustainable Campus with PEV and Microgrid|
|Publication Type||Conference Paper|
|Year of Publication||2012|
|Authors||K. Nandha Kumar, B. Sivaneasan, P.L. So, H.B. Gooi, Nilesh Jadhav, Reshma Singh, Chris Marnay|
|Conference Name||2012 ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings|
|Conference Location||Pacific Grove, CA|
|Keywords||buildings, campus, electric vehicles, energy, loads, microgrids, renewable energy, transport|
Market penetration of electric vehicles (EVs) is gaining momentum, as is the movetowards increasingly distributed, clean and renewable electricity sources. EV charging shifts asignificant portion of transportation energy use onto building electricity meters. Hence,integration strategies for energy-efficiency in buildings and transport sectors are of increasingimportance. This paper focuses on a portion of that integration: the analysis of an optimalinteraction of EVs with a building-serving transformer, and coupling it to a microgrid thatincludes PV, a fuel cell and a natural gas micro-turbine. The test-case is the NanyangTechnological University (NTU), Singapore campus. The system under study is the Laboratoryof Clean Energy Research (LaCER) Lab that houses the award winning Microgrid EnergyManagement System (MG-EMS) project. The paper analyses three different case scenarios toestimate the number of EVs that can be supported by the building transformer serving LaCER.An approximation of the actual load data collected for the building into different time intervals isperformed for a transformer loss of life (LOL) calculation. The additional EV loads that can besupported by the transformer with and without the microgrid are analyzed. The numbers ofpossible EVs that can be charged at any given time under the three scenarios are also determined.The possibility of using EV fleet at NTU campus to achieve demand response capability andintermittent PV output leveling through vehicle to grid (V2G) technology and building energymanagement systems is also explored.