|Title||High-Performance Integrated Window and Façade Solutions for California|
|Year of Publication||2020|
|Authors||Eleanor S Lee, Anothai Thanachareonkit, D. Charlie Curcija, Gregory J Ward, Taoning Wang, David Geisler-Moroder, Christoph Gehbauer, John Breshears, Luis L Fernandes, Stephen E Selkowitz, Robert Hart, Christian Kohler, David Blum, Jinqing Peng, Howdy Goudey|
|Institution||California Energy Commission|
|Keywords||bidirectional scattering distribution functions, daylighting, dynamic facades, energy efficiency, high-performance buildings, Highly insulating windows, model predictive controls, switchable glazing, ventilative façades|
The researchers developed a new generation of high-performance façade systems and supporting design and management tools to support industry in meeting California's greenhouse gas reduction targets, reduce energy consumption, and enable an adaptable response to minimize real-time demands on the electricity grid. The project resulted in five outcomes: (1) The research team developed an R-5, 1-inch thick, triplepane, insulating glass unit with a novel low-conductance aluminum frame. This technology can help significantly reduce residential cooling and heating loads, particularly during the evening. (2) The team developed a prototype of a windowintegrated local ventilation and energy recovery device that provides clean, dry fresh air through the façade with minimal energy requirements. (3) A daylight-redirecting louver system was prototyped to redirect sunlight 15–40 feet from the window. Simulations estimated that lighting energy use could be reduced by 35–54 percent without glare. (4) A control system incorporating physics-based equations and a mathematical solver was prototyped and field tested to demonstrate feasibility. Simulations estimated that total electricity costs could be reduced by 9-28 percent on sunny summer days through adaptive control of operable shading and daylighting components and the thermostat compared to state-of-the-art automatic façade controls in commercial building perimeter zones. (5) Supporting models and tools needed by industry for technology R&D and market transformation activities were validated. Attaining California's clean energy goals require making a fundamental shift from today's ad-hoc assemblages of static components to turnkey, intelligent, responsive, integrated building façade systems. These systems offered significant reductions in energy use, peak demand, and operating cost in California.