Energy and Indoor Environmental Quality in Relocatable Classrooms

Energy and Indoor Environmental Quality in Relocatable Classrooms

TitleEnergy and Indoor Environmental Quality in Relocatable Classrooms
Publication TypeConference Paper
Year of Publication2002
AuthorsMichael G Apte, Alfred T Hodgson, Derek G Shendell, Dennis L DiBartolomeo, Toshifumi Hotchi, Satish Kumar, Seung-Min Lee, Shawna M Liff, Leo I Rainer, Richard C Schmidt, Douglas P Sullivan, Richard C Diamond, William J Fisk
Conference NameIndoor Air 2002, 9th International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate
Conference LocationMonterey, CA
Keywordsenergy, indoor pollutants, schools, thermal comfort, ventilation
Abstract

Relocatable classrooms (RCs) are commonly utilized by school districts with changing demographics and enrollment sizes. Four energy-efficient RCs were designed and constructed for this study to demonstrate technologies that simultaneously attempt to improve energy efficiency and indoor environmental quality (IEQ). Two were installed at each of two school districts, and energy use and IEQ parameters were monitored during occupancy. Two (one per school) were finished with materials selected for reduced emissions of toxic and odorous volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Each RC had two HVAC systems, alternated weekly, consisting of a standard heat-pump system and an indirect-direct evaporative cooling (IDEC) system with gas-fired hydronic heating. The hypothesized advantages of the IDEC include continuous outside air ventilation at ≥7.5 L s-1 per person, ~70% less cooling energy and efficient particle filtration. Measurements include: carbon dioxide, particles, VOCs, temperature, humidity, thermal comfort, noise, meteorology, and energy use. Preliminary IEQ monitoring results are reported.

LBNL Report Number

LBNL-49581