Energy and climate effects of second-life use of electric vehicle batteries in California through 2050

Energy and climate effects of second-life use of electric vehicle batteries in California through 2050

TitleEnergy and climate effects of second-life use of electric vehicle batteries in California through 2050
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2015
AuthorsSathre, Roger, Corinne Scown, Olga Kavvada, and Thomas P. Hendrickson
JournalJournal of Power Sources
Volume288
Pagination82 - 91
Date Published08/2015
ISSN03787753
KeywordsBattery, Climate change mitigation, degradation, Energy balance, Grid storage, Lithium ion
Abstract

As the use of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) further increases in the coming decades, a growing stream of batteries will reach the end of their service lives. Here we study the potential of those batteries to be used in second-life applications to enable the expansion of intermittent renewable electricity supply in California through the year 2050. We develop and apply a parametric life-cycle system model integrating battery supply, degradation, logistics, and second-life use. We calculate and compare several metrics of second-life system performance, including cumulative electricity delivered, energy balance, greenhouse gas (GHG) balance, and energy stored on invested. We find that second-life use of retired PEV batteries may play a modest, though not insignificant, role in California's future energy system. The electricity delivered by second-life batteries in 2050 under base-case modeling conditions is 15 TWh per year, about 5% of total current and projected electricity use in California. If used instead of natural gas-fired electricity generation, this electricity would reduce GHG emissions by about 7 million metric tons of CO2e per year in 2050.

DOI10.1016/j.jpowsour.2015.04.097
LBNL Report Number

LBNL-1003874

Short TitleJournal of Power Sources