Carbonyl Emissions from Gasoline and Diesel Motor Vehicles

Carbonyl Emissions from Gasoline and Diesel Motor Vehicles

TitleCarbonyl Emissions from Gasoline and Diesel Motor Vehicles
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2008
AuthorsChris A Jakober, Michael A Robert, Sarah G Riddle, Hugo Destaillats, M. Judith Charles, Peter G Green, Michael J Kleeman
JournalEnvironmental Science and Technology
Volume42
4697
Issue13
Pagination4697-4703
Date Published05/2008
Abstract

Carbonyls from gasoline-powered light-duty vehicles (LDVs) and heavy-duty diesel-powered vehicles (HDDVs) operated on chassis dynamometers were measured by use of an annular denuder−quartz filter−polyurethane foam sampler with O-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl)hydroxylamine derivatization and chromatography−mass spectrometry analyses. Two internal standards were utilized based on carbonyl recovery: 4-fluorobenzaldehyde for <C8 carbonyls and 6-fluoro-4-chromanone for ≥C8 compounds. Gas- and particle-phase emissions for 39 aliphatic and 20 aromatic carbonyls ranged from 0.1 to 2000 µg/L of fuel for LDVs and from 1.8 to 27 000 µg/L of fuel for HDDVs. Gas-phase species accounted for 81−95% of the total carbonyls from LDVs and 86−88% from HDDVs. Particulate carbonyls emitted from a HDDV under realistic driving conditions were similar to concentrations measured in a diesel particulate matter (PM) standard reference material. Carbonyls accounted for 19% of particulate organic carbon (POC) emissions from low-emission LDVs and 37% of POC emissions from three-way catalyst-equipped LDVs. This identifies carbonyls as one of the largest classes of compounds in LDV PM emissions. The carbonyl fraction of HDDV POC was lower, 3.3−3.9% depending upon operational conditions. Partitioning analysis indicates the carbonyls had not achieved equilibrium between the gas and particle phases under the dilution factors of 126−584 used in the present study.

DOI10.1021/es7029174
Short TitleEnviron. Sci. Technol.